Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.
it emphasizes the dignity of human beings and the importance of the present life. Humanists voiced their beliefs that man was the center of the universe and man did not only have the right to enjoy the beauty of the present life， but had the ability to perfect himself and to perform wonders.
02. Renaissance（文艺复兴） （来源：自考 365 网 zikao365.com）
The word “Renaissance”means “rebirth”， it meant the reintroduction into westerm Europe of the full cultural heritage of Greece and Rome.
2>the essence of the Renaissance is Humanism. Attitudes and feelings which had been characteristic of the 14th and 15th centuries persisted well down into the era of Humanism and reformation.
3> the real mainstream of the english Renaissance is the Elizabethan drama with william shakespeare being the leading dramatist.
03. Metaphysical poetry（玄学派诗歌）
Metaphysical poetry is commonly used to name the work of the 17th century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne.
2>with a rebellious spirit， the Metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry.
3>the diction is simple as compared with that of the Elizabethan or the Neoclassical periods， and echoes the words and cadences of common speech.4>the imagery is drawn from actual life.
Classcism refers to a movement or tendency in art， literature， or music that reflects the principles manifested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Classicism emphasizes the traditional and the universal， and places value on reason， clarity， balance， and order. Classicism， with its concern for reason and universal themes， is traditionally opposed to Romanticism， which is concerned with emotions and personal themes.
Enlightenment movement was a progressive philosophical and artistic movement which flourished in france and swept through western Europe in the 18th century.
2> the movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance from 14th century to the mid-17th century.
3>its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.
4>it celebrated reason or rationality， equality and science. It advocated universal education.
5>famous among the great enlighteners in england were those great writers like Alexander pope. Jonathan swift.etc.
In the field of literature， the enlightenment movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.
2>this tendency is known as neoclassicism. The Neoclassicists held that forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Homer and Virgil and those of the contemporary French ones.
3> they believed that the artistic ideals should be order， logic， restrained emotion and accuracy， and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.
07. The Graveyard School（墓地派诗歌）
The Graveyard School refers to a school of poets of the 18th century whose poems are mostly devoted to a sentimental lamentation or meditation on life. Past and present， with death and graveyard as themes.
2>Thomas Gray is considered to be the leading figure of this school and his Elegy written in a country churchyard is its most representative work.
1>In the mid-18th century， a new literary movement called romanticism came to Europe and then to England.
2>It was characterized by a strong protest against the bondage of neoclassicism， which emphasized reason， order and elegant wit. Instead， romanticism gave primary concern to passion， emotion， and natural beauty.
3>In the history of literature. Romanticism is generally regarded as the thought that designates a literary and philosophical theory which tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and experience. 4> The English romantic period is an age of poetry which prevailed in England from 1798 to 1837. The major romantic poets include Wordsworth， Byron and Shelley.
09. Byronic Hero（拜伦式英雄）
Byronic hero refers to a proud， mysterious rebel figure of noble origin.
2> with immense superiority in his passions and powers， this Byronic Hero would carry on his shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society. And would rise single-handedly against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government， in religion， or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies.
3> Byron‘s chief contribution to English literature is his creation of the “Byronic Hero”
10. Critical Realism（批判现实主义）
Critical Realism is a term applied to the realistic fiction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.